A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see
it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed.
Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer
is utterly dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as arduous a
training to become a performer as a medical student needs to become a doctor.
Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the
muscular proficiency of an athlete or a ballet dancer.
畫家將已完成的作品掛在墻上，每個人都可以觀賞到。 作曲家寫完了一部作品，得由演奏者將其演奏出來，其他人才能得以欣賞。因為作曲家是如此完全地依賴于職業歌手和職業演奏者，所以職業歌手和職業演奏者肩上的擔子可謂不輕。 一名學音樂的學生要想成為一名演奏者，需要經受長期的、嚴格的訓練，就象一名醫科的學生要成為一名醫生一樣。 絕大多數的訓練是技巧性的，因為音樂家們控制肌肉的熟練程度，必須達到與運動員或巴蕾舞演員相當的水平。
Singers practice breathing every day, as their vocal chords would be inadequate without controlled muscular support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and fro with the right arm—two entirely different movements.
Singers and instruments have to be able to get every note perfectly in tune. Pianists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s responsibility to tune the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the hammers that hit the string have to be coaxed not to sound like percussion, and each overlapping tone has to sound clear.
歌手和樂器演奏者必須使所有的音符完全相同協調。 鋼琴家們則不用操這份心，因為每個音符都已在那里等待著他們了。 給鋼琴調音是調音師的職責。 但調音師們也有他們的難處： 他們必須耐心地調理敲擊琴弦的音錘，不能讓音錘發出的聲音象是打擊樂器，而且每個交疊的音都必須要清晰。
This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors: they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sound with fanatical but selfless authority. Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so thoroughly at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.
如何得到樂章清晰的紋理是學生指揮們所面臨的難題：他們必須學會了解音樂中的每一個音及其發音之道。 他們還必須致力于以熱忱而又客觀的去控制這些音符。除非是和音樂方面的知識和悟性結合起來，單純的技巧沒有任何用處。 藝術家之所以偉大在于他們對音樂語言駕輕就熟，以致于可以滿懷喜悅地演出寫于任何時代的作品。